21st Century Skills For Today’s Parents with Nigeria’s NASA {Excerpts}

Just last week, we hosted a live discussion with Live Session with Joy Olayiwola { Assistant Chief Scientific Officer, National Space Research and Development Agency }. Watch the recorded live session here: https://www.instagram.com/tv/CLFHpTHl5XX/?igshid=18lrf2mfsj0nx

21st century skills are 12 abilities that today’s students need to succeed in the information age.

Each 21st Century skill is broken into one of three categories:

  • Learning skills
  • Literacy skills
  • Life skills

The Age Trend…

The Information Age began around the 1970s and is still going on today. It is also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age. This era brought about a time period in which people could access information and knowledge easily.

21st Century skills are 12 abilities that today’s students need to succeed in their careers during the Information Age. These skills are intended to help students keep up with the lightning-pace of today’s modern markets. Each skill is unique in how it helps students, but they all have one quality in common.

They’re essential in the age of the Internet.

21st Century skills are: 

  • Critical thinking
  • Creativity
  • Collaboration
  • Communication
  • Information literacy
  • Media literacy
  • Technology literacy
  • Flexibility
  • Leadership
  • Initiative
  • Productivity
  • Social skills

Beginners Guide To Cyber Security.

This is an excerpt from our discussion with Andela’s Senior Software Engineer, Anu Onifade on Twitter. In January, our theme for the month is ‘Cyber Security’ for startups.

What is Cybersecurity?
Cyber security is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks, and data from malicious attacks. It’s also known electronic information security.

Why is it important today?

The damage caused by cybercrime is estimated to hit $6 trillion by the year 2021. This has led to a forecast that there will be an estimated increase in spending by companies for cyber security between the periods of 2017 and 2021 to $1 trillion.

What are the top Cyberthreats today?

1. Malwares: Malware means malicious software. One of the most common cyber threats, malware is software that a cybercriminal or hacker has created to disrupt or damage a legitimate user’s computer.

There are different kinds or malware out there. Examples are Virus, Trojans, Spyware, Ransomware, Adware, Botnets etc. They all have different ways they operate and are meant for different purposes. Botnets if on your device perform task online without your permission

2. Phishing: Phishing is when cybercriminals target victims with emails or websites that appear to be from a legitimate company asking for sensitive information. Phishing attacks are often used to dupe people into handing over sensitive data and other personal information.

3. Man-in-the-middle attack: Is a type of cyber threat where a cybercriminal intercepts communication between two individuals in order to steal data. For example, on an unsecure WiFi network, an attacker could intercept data being passed from the victim’s device and the network.

5. Denial-of-service attack: Is where cybercriminals prevent a computer system from fulfilling legitimate requests by overwhelming the networks and servers with traffic. This renders the system unusable, preventing an organisation from carrying out vital functions.

6. Social Engineering: Social engineering is the art of manipulating people so they give up confidential information. The types of information these criminals are seeking can vary, but when individuals are targeted the criminals are usually trying to trick you into giving them your passwords or bank information, or access your computer to secretly install malicious software–that will give them access to your passwords and bank information as well as giving them control over your computer.

Criminals use social engineering tactics because it is usually easier to exploit your natural inclination to trust than it is to discover ways to hack your software.

For example, it is much easier to fool someone into giving you their password than it is for you to try hacking their password (unless the password is really weak).

How do you stay safe?

1.      Update your software and operating system: This means you benefit from the latest security patches.

2.      Use anti-virus software: Security solutions will detect and remove threats. Keep your software updated for the best level of protection.

3.      Use strong passwords: Ensure your passwords are not easily guessable.

4.      Do not open email attachments from unknown senders: These could be infected with malware.

5.      Do not click on links in emails from unknown senders or unfamiliar websites:This is a common way that malware is spread.

6.      Avoid using unsecure WiFi networks in public places: Unsecure networks leave you vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. So looking at all these threats and possible spending in the area of Cybersecurity, I believe the question is how you can take advantage of this. If you intend to take the route of Entrepreneurship, consultancy or career, you have many opportunities in the area of Cybersecurity and the good thing is that it is a growing area and so this is the best time to be part of it. Let’s identity some of the opportunities.

Career Paths In CyberSecurity

1. Security Auditing: Companies especially financial institutions and companies that manages sensitive data are pay millions of dollars to consult security auditors.

An IT security auditor helps clients test the effectiveness of systems and their security components. It is the information gotten from here that he reports to his client enabling the client knows the next step to take.

2. Application penetration Tester: An application penetration tester is also known as an ethical hacker especially as you are paid to probe for, as well as exploit security vulnerabilities in the client’s applications, which could be web-based or mobile or even both.

3. Data Architects: Play very important role, as they create blueprints that can be used for data management systems. They usually assess a company’s potential data source – both internal and external as well as design a plan that would integrate, protect, centralize and maintain it.

Other paths include, Incident Responder, Exploit Developer,  Malware Analyst, Information Security Analyst, Cyber Security Specialist, Security architect, Disaster Recovery Consultant, Vulnerability Researcher etc.

All these and many more are areas you can either build a career or start a business in cybersecurity

Cybersecurity For Entrepreneurs with Andela’s Anu Onifade.

Platform: Twitter {Follow us on Twitter, @tech4herafrica. Official Hashtag: #tech4her

Date & Time: January 14, 2020, 6pm.

Customer trust is critical in a time of widespread cybercrime and data privacy attacks. Startup owners now face the challenge of building consumer confidence as they build their business.

Cyber threats and privacy issues can seriously affect your enterprise. Recent studies show that 87% of consumers will do business elsewhere if a company is untrustworthy.

Do not let your startup be part of the statistics. As you build the business from the ground up, make sure that you are setting up a robust cybersecurity as well. Take time to know the different cybersecurity trends and threats, much like you to take time to know other aspects of building and growing your business. Knowing that it’s necessary to protect digital systems is one thing, though: actually protecting them is another. The potential cost of investing in security services can lead entrepreneurs to question whether it’s better to leave their systems unsecured until they’ve bolstered their revenue — but that option is extremely risky.

The advancement of technology and the wide use of digital media is making attackers smarter by the day. Further, these cybercriminals take advantage of individuals and firms who pay less heed to cybersecurity. They target everything from a newly-launched blog to an established online store to gain access to sensitive information.

Every other day we read news related to cybersecurity threats like ransomware, phishing, or IoT-based attacks.

Themes for Discussion

• What is Cyber security?

• Why is it important today?

 • How Can startups take Affordable Route to Cybersecurity

• Top cyberthreats to be aware of today…

• Discuss digital security and safety as well as digital etiquette. 

• Cyber security fundamentals; how to properly protect your files and personal information. Types of cyber security breaches , 

• Prevention tips to prevent attacks on mobile and desktop. Protect your devices and social media and website or apps.

• How to keep yourself secure online.

Guest Speaker:

Anu Onifade is a senior developer at Andela. He is also one of our esteemed tutors at Tech4her Africa.

How To Achieve Your Goals In 2021.

Did you know that Visioning is FAR more productive than setting resolutions. It’s a new year and you had the 100% motivation to drive your set goals but you lost motivation towards the middle and this happens like every year. Do you think something is wrong? If you have been setting resolutions year in and out without significant progress, then surely there’s more to it.

Let’s do some analysis by comparing ‘Setting Resolutions’ and Visioning.

Resolutions by nature feel a little redundant, overwhelming, and are often ineffective. (If you’ve ever found yourself making the same resolution to lose weight year after year, without any real results to show for it then you know what I mean).

In contrast, a vision is more inspiring, creative, and intuitive. Most importantly it conditions your brain set the conditions for an actual breakthrough or meaningful change rather than just hoping for one.

Creating a vision is so much more powerful than a business plan on how to achieve our resolution. Why? Visions use imagery, which neurobiologically uses our innate implicit system. When creating a vision we automatically build an experience around the benefits of it. It becomes a multi-sensory experience as we spend time visualising our success and knowingly or not, examine how it looks, feels, and even what it might sound or taste like.

Once imagined the mind and body creates a psychophysiological blueprint of what and how to achieve it. When a vision is locked into our implicit system, our brain automatically starts to manifest it in our reality. It starts making daily decisions towards this aim without us having to do anything.

In summary, Visioning gives you the sustaining energy to drive and achieve your goals. Visioning gives you the reason and passion to commit to your resolutions that will help achieve your goals.

What is a Vision Board?


Here is a sample for your use. Replace the pictures with yours, print out and paste on your wall.

Visioning 2021 Like A Champ with Zimbabwe’s TEDX Speaker, Dev Center’s Founder & Elizabeth Edwards

Did you know that Visioning is FAR more productive than setting resolutions. You need to stop setting resolutions and start visioning.

Resolutions by nature feel a little redundant, overwhelming, and are often ineffective. (If you’ve ever found yourself making the same resolution to lose weight year after year, without any real results to show for it then you know what I mean).

In contrast, a vision is more inspiring, creative, and intuitive. Most importantly it conditions your brain set the conditions for an actual breakthrough or meaningful change rather than just hoping for one.

Creating a vision is so much more powerful than a business plan on how to achieve our resolution. Why? Visions use imagery, which neurobiologically uses our innate implicit system. When creating a vision we automatically build an experience around the benefits of it. It becomes a multi-sensory experience as we spend time visualising our success and knowingly or not, examine how it looks, feels, and even what it might sound or taste like.

Once imagined the mind and body creates a psychophysiological blueprint of what and how to achieve it. When a vision is locked into our implicit system, our brain automatically starts to manifest it in our reality. It starts making daily decisions towards this aim without us having to do anything.

Join our guests Nomalanga Ndlovu (One of Top Zimbabwe’s Motivational Speakers) Elizabeth Edwards (Founder, Tech4her) & Seun Awoyele ( Co founder, Dev Center) this Friday @6pm for a fireside chat on ‘Visioning 2021 like a champ”.

Refresh 2020: Keep Coding & Creating Solutions {For Alumni}

Our mission is to invest in the next generation science and technology female leaders in Nigeria. Get more women actively leveraging tech tools and skills such as ‘coding skills’ to create the future they want and deserve.

Having graduated from our ‘Girls Slay Code Academy’, we are organizing refresh sessions to inspire our alumni members to keep coding and creating solutions. This is exclusive to our alumni members.

Benefits to our Alumni members

  1. Connect with other ladies coding
  2. Opportunity to share your challenges
  3. Fresh inspiration
  4. Access to resources and more
  5. Interact with our qualified network of tutors
  6. Gain better understanding of key concepts
  7. Hands on projects

Date: December 22 @5pm | Venue: Online

Register below. New here? Do check our upcoming classes to start your journey.

Legal Advice for Techies with Hon. Seyi & Harvard’s Wola on Google Hangout.

Looking forward to hosting you live on Google Hangout with our special guests- Hon. Seyi Adisa  (OYSB Assembly & John Maxwell Leadership and Wola Joseph (LLB, BL, LLM Harvard University & Chief Legal @ Eko Electric).

We shall be discussing the legal frameworks you should know about as it applies to tech space to avoid trouble.

Startup founders are notoriously fixated on their latest business idea. On their technology, on the millions of people who might benefit from their innovations. And on the financial rewards that come from business success, off course. Unfortunately, many innovators treat legal compliance like a trip to the dentist: something to do later, or only if it hurts.

For ideas that have true commercial value, this approach can create countless hours of unnecessary work, at best, and, at worst, can sow at the outset the seeds of a startup’s eventual demise. It is far better to seek legal advice carrying an idea on a napkin than with a legal complaint or certified letter.

A good lawyer will be a key behind-the-scenes contributor to the success of your startup.

“Seeking counsel at the very beginning will help you familiarize yourself with the lay of the land,” “The last thing you want to do is launch, only to find out you overlooked an important regulation that carries a hefty penalty. With such a comprehensive introduction on this topic, join our guests as we dive deeper into the topic this Thursday at 6pm.

5 types of software licenses you need to understand

Every business uses software to manage business processes, communicate with employees, customers, and vendors, and for myriad other purposes. In most instances, software products require activating licenses or agreeing to “terms and conditions” before programs can be downloaded, installed, or accessed.

There are many types of software licenses, with different terms, support agreements, restrictions, and costs. Users need to understand the basics of software licenses, to ensure a full understanding of responsibilities and compliance with legal terms and limitations.

What Is a Software License?

A software license is a contract between the entity that created and supplied an application, underlying source code, or related product and its end user. The license is a text document designed to protect the intellectual property of the software developer and to limit any claims against them that may arise from its use.

A software license also provides legally binding definitions for the distribution and use of the software. End-user rights, such as installation, warranties, and liabilities, are also often spelled out in the software license, including protection of the developer’s intellectual property.

Most software falls under one of two categories that have distinct differences in how they are viewed under copyright law:

  • Proprietary – also referred to as “closed source”
  • Free and open-source software (FOSS) – referred to as “open source”

FOSS software licenses – give rights to the customer that include modification and reuse of the software code, providing the actual source code with the software product(s). This open-source type of licensing affords the user authority to modify the software functions and freedom to inspect the software code.

Proprietary software licenses – provide no such authority for code modification or reuse and normally provide software with operational code only, and no source code. A proprietary software license often includes terms that prohibit “reverse engineering” of the object code with the intention of obtaining source code by the licensee.

In both cases, the software license will most often specify limitations of liability from use of the software product, any mutual responsibilities such as support, and any warranties or disclaimer of warranty.

Where software is not covered by any license, it is normally categorized as:

  • Public domain software – freely available for use and not copyright protected
  • Private unlicensed software – such as business applications that still falls under copyright protection

Open source and proprietary software licensing may also specify additional restrictions and terms:

  • Transfer of ownership to the buyer or retention of ownership by the seller
  • Any authorization for copying, selling, or distributing the software
  • Definition of whether the license constitutes purchase or leasing of the software

How Does Software Licensing Work?

New users of a software will normally enter into an end-user license agreement (EULA) that constitutes a legal definition of the relationship between the licensor (provider) and licensee (user or business). The EULA is a contract that establishes the rights of the purchaser for installing and using the software.

Every EULA contains a clause that stipulates when its conditions are activated by an end user. This may be the moment the user opens the product packaging or, for example, when the user clicks on a button agreeing to accept the EULA’s terms to access it.

Cloud-based applications such as Software as a Service (SaaS) will often include license details in EULAs including:

  • Monthly or annual charges per user
  • Duration of the agreement
  • Terms of cancellation of the agreement
  • Recovery of any charges if canceled during the agreement

An additional use of software licensing is in cases where a software developer or firm grants authority for selling or distributing the software under the second party’s brand. The developer retains ownership, but the re-branding company is permitted to resell the software product. This method of licensing is called “white labeling.”

What Are the Types of Software Licenses?

There are five main software license categories or types used to cover different kinds of software and various business arrangements. These encompass a wide spectrum of licensing scenarios, from free software (public domain) to paid commercial software (proprietary).

Between these two extremes, there are also three categories (GNU/LGPL, permissive, and copyleft) that apply to various forms of open-source projects. Failure to follow the terms and conditions of an open-source license can lead to revealing trade secrets or even legal action from the project’s developers.

What are the different types of software licenses?

Here are five types of common software license models you should know about. Four are examples of open source licenses (which allow you to reuse code to some extent), and one disallows any reuse whatsoever.

Public domain. This is the most permissive type of software license. When software is in the public domain, anyone can modify and use the software without any restrictions. But you should always make sure it’s secure before adding it to your own codebase. Warning: Code that doesn’t have an explicit license is NOT automatically in the public domain. This includes code snippets you find on the internet.

Permissive. Permissive licenses are also known as “Apache style” or “BSD style.” They contain minimal requirements about how the software can be modified or redistributed. This type of software license is perhaps the most popular license used with free and open source software. Aside from the Apache License and the BSD License, another common variant is the MIT License.

LGPL. The GNU Lesser General Public Licenseallows you to link to open source libraries in your software. If you simply compile or link an LGPL-licensed library with your own code, you can release your application under any license you want, even a proprietary license. But if you modify the library or copy parts of it into your code, you’ll have to release your application under similar terms as the LGPL.

What are the different types of software licenses?

Copyleft. Copyleft licenses are also known as reciprocal licenses or restrictive licenses. The most well-known example of a copyleft or reciprocal license is the GPL. These licenses allow you to modify the licensed code and distribute new works based on it, as long as you distribute any new works or adaptations under the same software license. For example, a component’s license might say the work is free to use and distribute for personal use only. So any derivative you create would also be limited to personal use only. (A derivative is any new software you develop that contains the component.)

The catch here is that the users of your software would also have the right to modify the code. Therefore, you’d have to make your own source code available. But of course, exposing your source code may not be in your best interests.

Proprietary. Of all types of software licenses, this is the most restrictive. The idea behind it is that all rights are reserved. It’s generally used for proprietary software where the work may not be modified or redistributed.

How do I know what licenses apply to the code in my codebase?

Before you can determine which licenses govern any reused code in your codebase, you need to create a software bill of materials, or a list of all the components in your code. And the fastest way to generate that list is with a software composition analysis tool. A good SCA tool will be able to find full components as well as code snippets, and it’ll tell you which licenses apply to each piece of code and whether you might be using licenses that have conflicts.

Originally posted by Synopsys

7 Legal Issues Every Tech Entrepreneur Must Resolve To Avoid Trouble.

It is important that before commencing any technological startup or e-commerce venture, one gets acquainted with these legal considerations to protect any online business accordingly. This is because any mistakes made and any neglect of duties owed to customers (e.g. duty to ensure customers’ data protection) can be very expensive and in some instances, attract criminal charges. It may also attract unnecessary legal costs to business while undermining the longevity.

In any case, in educating oneself on these legal considerations and complying with the relevant rules and regulations that have been laid down, it is imperative to inform customers on how their information and data is being utilised. It is a sure way of promoting the integrity of business, attracting and maintaining a loyal customer base within the ambit of the law.

  • Business Registration 

To provide commercial services (including e-commerce), the Corporate Affairs Commission requires that such persons to register the entity under the Companies and Allied Matters Act. The type of business structure chosen will depend on certain factors such as budget and funding, taxation, etc.

It should be stated that the requirement of obtaining a tax identification number has now become stringent. This requirement is often paramount to be eligible to open a business account with most Nigerian banks. It is also interesting to know that in some cases, there may be need to register with the Special Control Unit Against Money Laundering.

  • Domain Name Registration

A domain name is a unique name that individuals or businesses register with a domain registrar to claim their own space on the internet. A registered domain name can be used as the name for a website, for an email or both. A major legal consideration in choosing a domain name is to ensure that such domain name is not already in use by another person. This is because the Nigerian Cyber Crime Act 2015 makes it a punishable offence for anyone to intentionally register a domain name that is already been used by another.

Availability of a domain name can easily be verified on popular hosting sites. This will quickly reveal if a name is available for use on the internet. In the event that there is need to ensure that the name is not already registered as a business name elsewhere, a search at the CAC or other appropriate quarters will be an extra layer of protective measure. 

In addition, any tech startup or e-commerce business would naturally require that you develop and maintain a website. An important factor to consider in building a website is to exercise caution in ensuring that images, logos and design used in developing such website are not already owned by another person. Images, logos or designs on the internet cannot just be copied without getting due consent from the owner. This is because there is always the potential risk of being subject of copyright-violation claim.

Where a web developer is involved, there is a dire need to sign a contract with the web developer that would spell out the intellectual property rights and obligations. It would be wise for this contract to include non-disclosure obligations as well. This is important to prevent exposure to liabilities and preventing the web developer or a third party from leveraging on insider information about your business idea obtained while developing the website.

  • Data Privacy 

A good part of any e-commerce business transaction would require that customers disclose sensitive private information about themselves over the internet.  Such could include: credit card details, bank account details, names, addresses, employment status, age, marital status, family and ethnic background of an individual. Because the internet is a breeding zone for hackers who usually exploit these data to the detriment of the people that disclose them, it becomes very necessary that you protect your customers from these potential hackers.

The Nigeria Data Protection Regulation and the Nigerian Cyber Crime Act, 2015 contains rules and regulations that an e-commerce outfit should follow. It is an offence to breach these rules.

For instance, Section 9 of the Nigerian Cyber Crime Act which deals with intercepting electronic messages provides that any person who unlawfully destroys or aborts any electronic mails or processes through which money and/or valuable information is being conveyed is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for 7 years in the first instance and upon second conviction shall be liable to 14 years imprisonment.

Similarly, section 2.3 of the NITDA Draft Guideline on Data Protection deals with consent and provides that no data shall be obtained except the specific purpose of collection is made known to the Data Subject. If further provides that Data Controller is under obligation to ensure that consent of a Data Subject has been obtained without fraud, coercion or undue influence.

Section 2.10 of the NITDA Guideline on Data Protection deals with penalties and provides that any person subject to the Regulation who is found to be in breach of the data privacy rights of any Data Subject shall be liable in addition to any other criminal liability, the following:

  1. in the case of a Data Controller dealing with more than 10,000 Data Subjects, payment of the fine of 2% of Annual Gross Revenue of the preceding year or payment of the sum of 10 million naira whichever is greater;
  2. in the case of a Data Controller dealing with less than 10,000 Data Subjects, payment of the fine of 1% of the Annual Gross Revenue of the preceding year or payment of the sum of 2 million naira whichever is greater.

There are other numerous offences provided in these laws that prescribe offences and penalties in the event of a breach. The best way to abide by these rules is by integrating these rules in your data management software and through a carefully drafted Privacy Policy, and Terms & Conditions.

  • Credit Card Transactions 

It is common practice for online business owners to integrate a payment gateway on their websites through which customers pay for goods bought or services rendered online. This can be done via two methods – either by directly applying to be issued a merchant account or by using the services of third-party provider (e.g. GTpay, Paypal, E-transact) who is already registered as a merchant account.

Whatever method that the business owner chooses, it is important that due diligence is conducted to ensure that the merchant account chosen complies with the Payment Card Industry Security Standard Council, (PCI SSC) guidelines. The PCI SSC is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures created jointly in 2004 by four major credit-card companies: including Visa and MasterCard. It is intended to optimize the security of credit, debit, and cash card transactions and protect cardholders against misuse of their private data.

  • Trademarks 

Trademarks are images, logos, pictures, symbols, names, signs, designs, colors, sounds and jingles etc. which distinguish your product or service from others. With the surge in e-commerce related activities, it is now easier for one’s trademark rights to be stolen or infringed upon. By registering trademarks, the owner of the registered trademark retains exclusive right of use and can institute a legal action against anybody who infringes on this right.

The business owner should also look at trademark issues as a duty, every business owes to other people not to infringe on their own trademark rights.

  • Online Advertising Rules

Advertising of goods and services in Nigeria is regulated under the code of Advertising Practice and Sales Promotions Guideline of Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON).

It provides amongst other things that:

  1. The commercial nature of the communication must not be concealed or misleading; it should be made clear in the subject header.
  2. There should be clarity of the terms and offer and devices should not be used to conceal or obscure any material factor such as the: the price or other sale conditions likely to influence the customer’s decision
  3. There should be clarity as to the procedure for concluding the contract.
  4. All marketing communications sent via electronic media should include a clear and transparent mechanism enabling the consumer to opt-against receiving future solicitations.
  • Tax Considerations 

The law on taxation in Nigeria requires that so long as one has a business in Nigeria or derives income from Nigeria, such person would be liable to pay tax. The principal law is the Companies Income Tax Act (CITA) which imposes Companies Income Tax on profits accruing in, derived from, brought into or received in Nigeria. It is payable by companies that are registered in Nigeria and non- resident entities carrying on business in Nigeria at a rate of 30% on profits made by the Company. 

In essence, an e-commerce business owner whose business is targeted at the Nigerian market and who derives revenues or income from such a business is liable to taxation in a manner applicable to businesses with traditional offices in Nigeria and would be required to pay Company Income Tax of 30% on its profits. 

Once a company registers for Company Income Tax it is given a unique Taxpayer’s Identification Number (TIN). The TIN is a unique number that identifies a specific company for the purposes of paying taxes. Further, as goods will be sold online, the sale of goods in Nigeria is also subject to Value Added Tax (VAT). VAT is a tax imposed on the supply of goods and services. The tax is charged in Nigeria at 5% of the value of the taxable goods and services. You can read more about the process to register for VAT here.

Under Nigerian Law, there is also a tax levied on ICT companies called the Information Technology Tax. This tax is payable by specified companies (GSM service providers and all telecommunications companies, cyber companies and internet providers, pension managers and pension related companies, banks and other financial institutions, and insurance companies) who have an annual turnover of One Hundred Million Naira (N100, 000,000). The companies are to pay a levy of one per cent (1%) of their annual profit before tax to the National Information Technology Development Fund (“NITD Fund”). This tax when paid is tax deductible for company income tax purposes. The unfortunate thing here is that the term ‘cyber companies’ is not defined by the Act, so there is some ambiguity as to whether e-Commerce companies would fall under that term and therefore liable to pay the tax. It is however something that e-Commerce companies should bear in mind.

Nigeria also offers tax incentives that may be beneficial to eligible e-commerce businesses. Pioneer companies investing in specified industrial activities may, on application, be granted a tax holiday for three years initially, which may be extended for up to two years upon satisfaction of specified conditions. 

There are also export incentives. Export processing zones (EPZs) and free trade zones (FTZs) are locations within Nigeria designated by the government as free areas where export trade activities can be carried on free of tax and foreign exchange restrictions.

An e-commerce company that is engaged in an approved activity in an EPZ and incurs expenditures in its qualifying equipment is entitled to 100% capital allowance in that year of assessment. In addition, a company that is 100% export oriented but located outside an EPZ will enjoy a three-year tax holiday, provided the company is not formed by splitting up or reconstruction of an already existing business and the export proceeds form at least 75% of its turnover.

culled from starklegal…

How Be a Thought Leader In Your Profession.

  1. Cultivate your Sense of Adventure

Experts are never content with the status quo. They’re always looking for the next “evolution” of their profession. They’re constantly trying new techniques, improving on existing concepts, exploring new ideas and adding value. They’re always looking to push the boundaries and expand the limits of their field. Experts are at the forefront, leading the way for the future of their profession.

Don’t simply accept “standard practice”. As an expert, your role is to question, challenge and innovate. Engage your brain. Think differently. Don’t be afraid of uncharted territory—relish it. Expertise requires a daring sense of adventure.

2. Demonstrate your knowledge

Experts take pride in demonstrating and sharing their skills and knowledge. They always want to be of service to their professional community. If you want to be seen as an expert, put your expertise out there for all to benefit from. Let your ideas spark conversation. Be the catalyst that inspires others to think differently about your profession. Be loud and bold and unafraid of drawing attention to yourself and your point-of-view.

How do you do this? The written word is always a great place to start. Consider writing an article for a publication catering to your industry or profession. Or start a blog like this one (as I said, anyone can!). Nothing is more empowering than putting your thoughts out there for the world to see. And, as a published author—whether online or in print—you’re automatically afforded a certain level of authority. It’s not difficult to establish a name and reputation for yourself, but it does require effort.

3) Commit to training and educating people

Another way to demonstrate and share your expertise is to train others—offer to present on a topic of interest at a local industry conference or meeting of your professional association. Host a lunch and learn event at your company, or simply share tips and resources with your colleagues. Don’t be afraid of lifting others up and helping them shine—experts are eager to raise the bar for their profession, not just for themselves.